Stage 3: Testing the face validity of candidate items

Stage 3 involved semi-structured face to face or telephone interviews with patients (acute, long-term conditions, and mental health service users), social care users, carers and the general public to test the face validity of identified items and their response options.

This was undertaken in England as well as in five other countries (Argentina, Australia, China, Germany, USA) by international collaborators.

The findings from this stage were used to reduce the number of items that were taken forward to validation using a large survey.

Methods and reports

Face validation

Aim: To assess how appropriate, relevant and understandable the items developed in Stage 2 are to individuals who complete them

Methods: Interviews with patients, carers, social care users and members of the general public [Methods Protocol (PDF, 728KB)]

Paper: Carlton, J., Peasgood, T., Mukuria, C., Connell, J., Brazier, J., Ludwig, K., Marten, O., Kreimeier, S., Engel, L., Belizán, M. and Yang, Z., (2022). Generation, Selection, and Face Validation of Items for a New Generic Measure of Quality of Life: The EQ Health and Wellbeing. Value in Health.